This news was confirmed when a Parthian cataphract rode into view with Publius’ severed head tied to the end of his spear. He also failed to understand that the local Arab kingdoms, like Osroene and Commagene, did not share the Greek’s disdain for Parthian rule. A friend gave me a book called ‘Lost Battles’, Philip Sabin, 2007 that takes the available information of numerous battles (including this one) and plots the battle action on a 4×5 grid (conforming to far left, left, center, right, and far right with a reserve area for each, duplicated for each side). At this point Crassus seems to have suffered a complete mental breakdown and simply lay on the ground motionless. [33] Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 27.2-8; Cassius Dio, Roman History, 40.24. The ancient world seems to have money changers, money lenders, and temples working as banks. This was not a bad plan, as the Tigris would protect Crassus’ left flank, the marshy ground between the two rivers would prevent Parthian cavalry from having easy room to maneuver, and the river would supply fresh water to the army during its long march. by John Selby Watson. 1916, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Crassus*.html (accessed July 15, 2011), 15.1-5. At this point, the two sides were at peace.

A formal peace treaty was finally signed in 20 BC. Their first acts were to extend Caesar’s term as governor of Gaul (which he was still in the process of conquering), and make themselves the governors of Spain and Syria once their term in office expired. The revolt was finally destroyed by the concentrated military effort of a single commander, Marcus Licinius Crassus. Image Source: (Header) http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198804/main.street.of.eurasia.htm (body) http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/westciv/romanrev/17.shtml, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coin_of_Orodes_II_of_Parthia.jpg, all maps based on free educational maps from the Maps for Students Page at the Ancient World Mapping Center, http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/History/ashkanian/surena.htm, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lorica_Hamata.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ParthianHorseman.jpg, http://www.iranchamber.com/history/parthians/parthian_army.php, http://www.moddb.com/groups/ancient-weapon-lovers-group/images/late-roman-republic, Excellent explication of the battle of Carrhae.

In Roman times, Harran was known as Carrhae, and was the location of the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BCE, in which the Parthians, commanded by general Surena, defeated a large Roman army under the command of Crassus, who was killed. His general Cassius recommended that the army be deployed in the traditional Roman … Others included Gaius Cassius Longinus and Octavius. What’s more, their short spears had difficulty penetrating the cataphract’s heavy armor while the Gauls wore almost no armor themselves. Their bows were small, powerful and their arrows could pierce Roman chain mail. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The missiles falling thick upon them from all sides at once struck down many by a mortal blow, rendered many useless for battle, and caused distress to all. The final insult was that they captured many standards, including legionary eagles. The last stage of his career was as a triumvir, one of the First Triumvirate, with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Gaius Julius Caesar. [13] Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 19.3-6; Cassius Dio, Roman History, 40.17-19.

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