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[35][36][37] Due to the convection process, however, very slow and partial separation and differentiation of rocks and ices inside Callisto has been proceeding on timescales of billions of years and may be continuing to this day. [21] The allowable timescale of formation of Callisto lies then in the range 0.1 million–10 million years. It orbits at a distance of approximately 1 880 000 km (26.3 times the 71 492 km radius of Jupiter itself). [6] The trailing hemisphere[g] of Callisto appears to be enriched in carbon dioxide, whereas the leading hemisphere has more sulfur dioxide. The surface pressure is estimated to be 7.5 picobar (0.75 µPa) and particle density 4 × 108 cm−3. The weight ratio of iron to silicon is 0.9–1.3 in Callisto, whereas the solar ratio is around 1:8. Because of this, there is a sub-Jovian point on Callisto's surface, from which Jupiter would appear to hang directly overhead. [44] The early onset of subsolidus convection in the Callistoan interior could have prevented large-scale ice melting and any resulting differentiation that would have otherwise formed a large rocky core and icy mantle. It is less affected by Jupiter's magnetosphere than the other inner satellites because of its more remote orbit, located just outside Jupiter's main radiation belt. The largest impact features on Callisto's surface are multi-ring basins. [56], The ancient surface of Callisto is one of the most heavily cratered in the Solar System. Actually, in some myths she was an unwilling participant in sex with Zeus, which is the darker side of ancient mythology … The non-ice remnants form debris avalanches descending from the slopes of the crater walls. [44][66][67] The presence of even small amounts of ammonia—about 1–2% by weight—almost guarantees the liquid's existence because ammonia would lower the melting temperature even further. [18] Small craters, with diameters less than 5 km, have simple bowl or flat-floored shapes. [16] Its surface is completely covered with impact craters. [22], Although Callisto is very similar in bulk properties to Ganymede, it apparently had a much simpler geological history. The ages of multi-ring structures and impact craters depend on chosen background cratering rates and are estimated by different authors to vary between 1 and 4 billion years.[18][57]. We are often asked about mythology merchandise. To make events a little more bearable, Zeus gave them both a place in the Heavens. [23] Scientist Torrence Johnson said the following about comparing the odds of life on Callisto with the odds on other Galilean moons:[74]. She was also known as being a proficient knitter and she was said to be able to take yarn and turn it into something beautiful. ", "Cratering Rates on the Galilean Satellites", "Populations of Small Craters on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto: Initial Galileo Imaging Results", "Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Search for an Atmosphere on Callisto: a Jovian Unipolar Inductor", "Comet impacts explain Ganymede-Callisto dichotomy", "Origin of the Ganymede–Callisto dichotomy by impacts during the late heavy bombardment", "Powering Triton's recent geological activity by obliquity tides: Implications for Pluto geology", "Esa selects 1bn-euro Juice probe to Jupiter", "High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE Missions to Callisto", Images of Callisto at JPL's Planetary Photojournal, Paul Schenk's 3D images and flyover videos of Callisto and other outer solar system satellites, List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Callisto_(moon)&oldid=981180041, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 September 2020, at 19:25. Callisto gave birth to Arcas, who later became king of Arcadia. Arcas, an avid hunter, was about to kill Callisto. The surface of Callisto is the oldest and most heavily cratered in the Solar System. Callisto was a nymph (or, according to some sources, the daughter of Lycaon) who was associated with the goddess of the hunt, Artemis. The large-scale geology is relatively simple; there are no large mountains on Callisto, volcanoes or other endogenic tectonic features. To make events a little more bearable, Zeus gave them both a place in the Heavens. [70][71][72] The relatively simple geological history of Callisto provides planetary scientists with a reference point for comparison with other more active and complex worlds.[15]. Pierre Thomas & Philippe Mason (1985) "Tectonics of the Vahalla Structure on Callisto", "Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters", "Interior composition, structure and dynamics of the Galilean satellites", "A Tenuous Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere on Jupiter's Moon Callisto", "Energetic Ion and Electron Irradiation of the Icy Galilean Satellites", "Exploring Jupiter – JIMO – Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter – the moon Callisto", "Suddenly, It Seems, Water Is Everywhere in Solar System", "Callisto – Overview – Planets – NASA Solar System Exploration", "Mass Movement and Landform Degradation on the Icy Galilean Satellites: Results of the Galileo Nominal Mission", "Ionosphere of Callisto from Galileo radio occultation observations", "Formation of the Galilean Satellites: Conditions of Accretion", "Oceans in the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter? At 4821 km in diameter, Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass. In 2003 NASA conducted a conceptual study called Human Outer Planets Exploration (HOPE) regarding the future human exploration of the outer Solar System. Godchecker™ is a trade mark used under license. Inóan[31] from Īnōᵢ[32] and Argóan[33] from Argōᵢ[34]), and indeed the analogous form Callistoan is found. [19] The absolute ages of the landforms are not known. Another thing Callisto was known for is her friendship with Artemis, the virgin goddess of the hunt. As a result of this relatively distant orbit, Callisto does not participate in the mean-motion resonance—in which the three inner Galilean satellites are locked—and probably never has. The light plains include bright impact craters like Burr and Lofn, as well as the effaced remnants of old large craters called palimpsests,[i] the central parts of multi-ring structures, and isolated patches in the cratered plains. If you wish to use our material in your essay, book, article, website or project, please consult our permissions page. [25] The name was suggested by Simon Marius soon after Callisto's discovery. [6] The knobs are thought to represent remnants of crater rims degraded by an as-yet uncertain process. [39] One also sees ad hoc forms, such as Callistan,[19] Callistian[40] and Callistean. from moment of inertia measurements) means that it has never been heated enough to melt its ice component. Callisto was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. [26] Marius attributed the suggestion to Johannes Kepler.[25]. A few months after the encounter, Artemis discovered that she was pregnant and she was forced out of the goddess’s inner circle. Please do not copy without permission. [18] In 2000, the Cassini spacecraft en route to Saturn acquired high-quality infrared spectra of the Galilean satellites including Callisto. Callisto's battered surface lies on top of a cold, stiff, and icy lithosphere that is between 80 and 150 km thick. In fact, it is said that all friends of the virgin goddess also needed to remain virgins. [17] It does not show any signatures of subsurface processes such as plate tectonics or volcanism, with no signs that geological activity in general has ever occurred, and is thought to have evolved predominantly under the influence of impacts. The target chosen to consider in detail was Callisto. Zeus would seduce Callisto though, not in the palace of her father but in the woods, for Callisto was a part of the hunting retinue of Artemis. Larger impact features, with diameters in the range 25–100 km, have central pits instead of peaks, such as Tindr crater. Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → UniverseEach arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of".

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