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Throughout his service he demonstrated a talent for surveying and cartography and was responsible for mapping much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege, thus allowing General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack during the 1759 Battle of the Plains of Abraham. They pleaded with the king not to go. [61] He was first struck on the head with a club by a chief named Kalaimanokahoʻowaha or Kanaʻina (namesake of Charles Kana'ina) and then stabbed by one of the king's attendants, Nuaa. He sounded the channel (now known as Round Hill Creek) and found a freshwater stream, noting there was room for a few ships to safely anchor. James Cook was the son of a farmhand migrant from Scotland. There Cook raised the flag and claimed Raiatea-Tahaa and “the adjacent” islands of Huahine, Borabora, Tupai (Motu Iti) and Maurua (Maupiti) for Great Britain, naming them the Society islands. The islanders retained Cook’s body and conducted rituals reserved for their chiefs and elders. An old kahuna (priest), chanting rapidly while holding out a coconut, attempted to distract Cook and his men as a large crowd began to form at the shore. [82] George Vancouver, one of Cook's midshipmen, led a voyage of exploration to the Pacific Coast of North America from 1791 to 1794. On 17 January 1773, Resolution was the first ship to venture south of the Antarctic Circle, which she did twice more on this voyage. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not previously charted by Western explorers. Endeavour continued northwards along the coastline, keeping the land in sight with Cook charting and naming landmarks as he went. While Cook was still a child, his father became the foreman on a farm in a neighbouring village. [8] In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War. [81], In 1959, the Cooktown Re-enactment Association first performed a re-enactment of Cook's 1770 landing at the site of modern Cooktown, Australia, and have continued the tradition each year, with the support and participation of many of the local Guugu Yimithirr people. On his return voyage to New Zealand in 1774, Cook landed at the Friendly Islands, Easter Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu. [4], After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker. [18], The Admiralty's Instructions to Cook were divided into two sections, both marked "Secret"[19] The first document dealt with the voyage to Tahiti, while the second dealt with the post-transit agenda. He disembarked, named the island "Possession Island", and claimed the entire coastline that he had just explored as British territory. He later became Governor of New South Wales, where he was the subject of another mutiny—the 1808 Rum Rebellion. [40] Cook's journal entries reflect regret as he had failed his instructions to avoid hostilities with the indigenous people of any nations encountered. [30] Cook's expedition circumnavigated the globe at an extreme southern latitude, becoming one of the first to cross the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773. Cook continued his exploration of the Antarctic. In 2002, Cook was placed at number 12 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. He tested several preventive measures, most importantly the frequent replenishment of fresh food. [21] The voyage was commanded by 40-year-old Lieutenant James Cook. [18], Cook's surveying ability was also put to use in mapping the jagged coast of Newfoundland in the 1760s, aboard HMS Grenville. (Part 2 of 4) – Britain on DocuWatch – free streaming British history documentaries", "Captain James Cook: His voyages of exploration and the men that accompanied him", "Muster for HMS Resolution during the third Pacific voyage, 1776–1780", "Better Conceiv'd than Describ'd: the life and times of Captain James King (1750–84), Captain Cook's Friend and Colleague. "Punished Henry Stephens, Seaman, and Thomas Dunster, Marine, with twelve lashes each for refusing to take their allowance of fresh beef."[76]. ; by John Hawkesworth, LL.D. Voyages Principal Voyage James Cook sailed from Deptford, England on July 30, 1768 on his ship Endeavour with a crew of 84 men. [10], The vessel chosen by the Admiralty for the voyage was a merchant collier named Earl of Pembroke, launched in June 1764 from the coal and whaling port of Whitby in North Yorkshire. https://en.wikivoyage.org/w/index.php?title=Voyages_of_James_Cook&oldid=4069569, Articles without Wikipedia links (via Wikidata), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This travel guide page was last edited at 01:09, on 27 September 2020 by Wikivoyage user. "[85], A U.S. coin, the 1928 Hawaii Sesquicentennial half-dollar, carries Cook's image. A third voyage was planned, and Cook volunteered to find the Northwest Passage. forced to maintain a more northerly course owing to prevailing gales, "Secret Instructions to Lieutenant Cook 30 July 1768 (UK)", A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Vol. It was the first of three Pacific voyages of which James Cook was the commander. The first of Captain Cook’s voyages was a scientific exploration of the Pacific Ocean in the HMSEndeavour. [59], Manuscript nautical chart of the North Island of New Zealand, prepared during James Cook's first voyage, 1768–1771, Manuscript nautical chart of the South Island of New Zealand prepared during James Cook's first voyage, 1768–1771. After that, instead of turning before the west winds for the homeward run around Cape Horn, he crossed the Tasman Sea westward and, on April 19, 1770, came upon the southeast coast of Australia. Capt. [93] Numerous institutions, landmarks and place names reflect the importance of Cook's contributions, including the Cook Islands, Cook Strait, Cook Inlet and the Cook crater on the Moon. The first voyage is shown in red, second voyage in green, and third voyage in blue. Cook then set course westwards, intending to strike for Van Diemen's Land (present-day Tasmania, sighted by Tasman) to establish whether or not it formed part of the fabled southern continent. And, once again, not one of his crew died of scurvy. After raising the flag and formally claiming possession of Mercury Bay for Great Britain, Cook sailed the Endeavour out of the bay on 15 November. The routes of Captain James Cook's voyages. Once the observations were completed, Cook opened the sealed orders, which were additional instructions from the Admiralty for the second part of his voyage: to search the south Pacific for signs of the postulated rich southern continent of Terra Australis. [67] They did not accept the offer of gifts from Cook, whose lack of knowledge of Aboriginal custom may have prevented him from behaving acceptably in such exchanges. Cook's journals, along with those of Banks, were handed over to the Admiralty to be published upon his return. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. They took their observations but sadly the results weren’t as accurate or revolutionary as they were hoping for. James Cook’s three voyages to the Pacific took place during a period of growing British imperial and economic expansion. [b] At first Cook bestowed the name "Sting-Ray Harbour"[66] to the inlet after the many such creatures found there; this was later changed to "Botanist Bay"[66] and finally Botany Bay after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks, Daniel Solander and Herman Spöring. This brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society, which led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for a scientific expedition, his first voyage (1768–1771) to the Pacific Ocean, to observe and record the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun from Tahiti. His body was disembowelled, baked to remove his flesh and his bones preserved as religious icons. Hawkesworth edited the journals of Byron, Wallis and Carteret into separate accounts as volume I and then blended Cook's and Joseph Banks' journals with some of his own sentiments and produced a single first-person narrative that appeared to be the words of Cook, as Volume II. Cook also discovered and named Clerke Rocks and the South Sandwich Islands ("Sandwich Land"). Arthur R. Hinks, "Nautical time and civil date", Cook, James, Journal of the HMS Endeavour, 1768-1771, National Library of Australia, Manuscripts Collection, MS 1, 22 August 1770. Importantly, this game adds a perspective 'from the shore', from Larila, a proud Pakana woman from Tasmania's north-east. [43], Cook's second voyage marked a successful employment of Larcum Kendall's K1 copy of John Harrison's H4 marine chronometer, which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy. [91] Another shuttle, Discovery, was named after Cook's HMS Discovery. Minted for the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage (10,008) has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive. Instead, Phillip gave orders to relocate to a harbour a few kilometres to the north, which Cook had named Port Jackson but had not further explored. [31], Disappointingly, the separate measurements of Green, Cook and Solander varied by more than the anticipated margin of error. [29][30]On the day of the transit observation, Cook recorded: Saturday 3rd This day prov'd as favourable to our purpose as we could wish, not a Clowd was to be seen the Whole day and the Air was perfectly clear, so that we had every advantage we could desire in Observing the whole of the passage of the Planet Venus over the Suns disk: we very distinctly saw an Atmosphere or dusky shade round the body of the Planet which very much disturbed the times of the contacts particularly the two internal ones. The Voyages of Captain James Cook reveals Cook's fascinating story through excerpts from his journals, as well as illustrations, photography, and supplementary writings.During Cook's career, he logged more than 200,000 miles - nearly the distance to the moon. He then turned north to South Africa, and from there continued back to England. [52] He unknowingly sailed past the Strait of Juan de Fuca and soon after entered Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island. When he set out in 1768, more than one-third of the globe was unmapped. Cook then set sail into the largely uncharted ocean to the south, stopping at the Pacific islands of Huahine, Borabora and Raiatea to claim them for Great Britain. Although the passages had long been sought in vain from Europe, it was thought that the search from the North Pacific might be successful. It was therefore resolved to return by way of the East Indies by the following rout: upon Leaving this Coast to steer to the Westward until we fall in with the East Coast of New Holland, and then to follow the direction of that Coast to the Northward, or what other direction it might take us until we arrive at its Northern extremity; and if this should be found impracticable, then to Endeavour [sic] to fall in with the Land or Islands discovered by Quiros.[58].

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