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Trabecular bone has an extensive network of small and interconnected plates and rods of individual trabeculae oriented according to the external loading. Conditions relating to bone can be managed by a variety of doctors, including rheumatologists for joints, and orthopedic surgeons, who may conduct surgery to fix broken bones. This makes it weaker and more flexible. Bird skeletons are very lightweight. Zone of reserve cartilage. [1][2] The largest bone in the body is the femur or thigh-bone, and the smallest is the stapes in the middle ear. Newly formed bone was observed between the lateral surface of the β-TCP block and the fibrous tissue of the periosteum (Fig. [19] Because the osteoclasts are derived from a monocyte stem-cell lineage, they are equipped with phagocytic-like mechanisms similar to circulating macrophages. [20] Two types of bone can be identified microscopically according to the arrangement of collagen: woven and lamellar. The titanium coating with nano-pores would increase the on-growth and in-growth formation of, Bone Repair Biomaterials (Second Edition), ). Lamellar bone has a regular parallel alignment of collagen into sheets (lamellae) and is mechanically strong. The brand-new bone created by the osteoblast is called osteoid. A deer's antlers are composed of bone which is an unusual example of bone being outside the skin of the animal once the velvet is shed. [7] The spaces they occupy are known as lacunae. Trabecular bone has an extensive network of small and interconnected plates and rods of individual trabeculae oriented according to the external loading. These hormones also promote increased secretion of osteoprotegerin. Woven bone is weaker, with a smaller number of randomly oriented collagen fibers, but forms quickly; it is for this appearance of the fibrous matrix that the bone is termed woven. A bone in which the tubular lamellae are formed, which are characterized by parallel spirally arranged collagen fibers. Bone tissue that contains an intrinsic network of blood vessels. Cancellous bone, also called trabecular or spongy bone,[7] is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell porous network. The function of ground substance is not fully known. Oracle bone script was a writing system used in Ancient China based on inscriptions in bones. Woven bone is not frequently found in the adult skeleton, except in pathological conditions (such as Paget’s disease and osteosarcoma) or following injury [38–43]. This region, farthest from the marrow cavity, consists of typical hyaline cartilage that as yet shows no sign of transforming into bone. [32], Endochondral ossification occurs in long bones and most other bones in the body; it involves the development of bone from cartilage. [13] Osteocytes originate from osteoblasts that have migrated into and become trapped and surrounded by bone matrix that they themselves produced. [11], Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds cancellous tissue. Woven bone is characterized by bone tissue with a disorganized collagen fibril arrangement (Fig. Warden, in Bone Repair Biomaterials (Second Edition), 2019. Intramembranous ossification mainly occurs during formation of the flat bones of the skull but also the mandible, maxilla, and clavicles; the bone is formed from connective tissue such as mesenchyme tissue rather than from cartilage. [4] The elasticity of collagen improves fracture resistance. Osteoblasts also manufacture hormones, such as prostaglandins, to act on the bone itself. Dr. Tummy, n.d. Bone Cells. These cells include osteoblasts, which are involved in the creation and mineralization of bone tissue, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, which are involved in the reabsorption of bone tissue. Within each column, the walls between the lacunae break down and the chondrocytes die. The term "osseous", and the prefix "osteo-", referring to things related to bone, are still used commonly today. Lamellar bone also requires a relatively flat surface to lay the collagen fibers in parallel or concentric layers. [18] Osteocytes remain in contact with other cells in the bone through gap junctions—coupled cell processes—which pass through small channels in the bone matrix called the canaliculi. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845695897500080, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128008836000914, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128133842000059, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024515000032, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024515000020, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128128510000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470180400800073, Biomaterials Science (Third Edition), 2013, Alveolar widening using distraction osteogenesis (DO) in maxillofacial surgery, Quantitative Human Physiology (Second Edition), .

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