The courses are tuned in unison for high and intermediate pitches, but for lower pitches one of the two strings is tuned an octave higher (the course where this split starts changed over the history of the lute).
<< /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Gut is more authentic for playing period pieces, though unfortunately it is also more susceptible to irregularity and pitch instability due to changes in humidity.
6c) Renaissance lute, as played by such great historical ﬁgures as Francesco da Milano, John Dowland, and many, many others.
-”-. If you value the website, newsletter, free lessons, or sheet music, please consider offering your support to keep its future sustainable and secure. This instrument also found its way to parts of Italy that were under Spanish domination (especially Sicily and the papal states under the Borgia pope Alexander VI who brought many Catalan musicians to Italy), where it was known as the viola da mano. He was not the first important German lutenist, because contemporaries credited Conrad Paumann (c. 1410–1473) with the invention of German lute tablature, though this claim remains unproven, and no lute works by Paumann survive.
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The tuning of a lute is a complicated issue, described in a section of its own below. 9 (1976), 108. The first part of the seventeenth century was a period of considerable diversity in the tuning of the lute, particularly in France. It may refer to the wooden plectrum traditionally used for playing the oud, to the thin strips of wood used for the back, or to the wooden soundboard that distinguished it from similar instruments with skin-faced bodies. The lute was also used throughout its history as an ensemble instrument—most frequently in songs for voice and lute, which were particularly popular in Italy (see frottola) and England. Instead of having to fret the F# it is now an open string. Some luthiers tune the belly as they build, removing mass and adapting bracing to produce desirable sonic results. Also, the keys chosen often work better due to this fact. Also, the keys chosen often work better due to this fact. Sometimes it’s impossible to play the piece without lute tuning. Hellenistic banquet scene from 1st century A.D., (Left-two images) Oud-family instruments painted in the, Lutes by Matthäus Büchenberg, 1613 (left) and by Matteo Sellas, 1641 in, Various lutes exhibited at the Deutsches Museum, 6-course Early Renaissance lute tuning chart, 10-course Late Renaissance/Early Baroque lute tuning chart, (D'D) (F'F) (G'G) (Cc) (FF) (AA) (dd) (g). Here are the duets I mentioned. Thus an 8-course Renaissance lute usually has 15 strings, and a 13-course Baroque lute has 24.
1670), however, a distinctly German style came only after 1700 in the works of Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686–1750), one of the greatest lute composers, some of whose works were transcribed for keyboard by none other than Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750), who composed a few pieces for the lute himself (though it is unclear whether they were really intended for the lute, rather than another plucked string instrument or the lautenwerk).
The leader of the next generation of Italian lutenists, Francesco Canova da Milano (1497–1543), is now acknowledged as one of the most famous lute composers in history.
The neck is made of light wood, with a veneer of hardwood (usually ebony) to provide durability for the fretboard beneath the strings. Catlines are several gut strings wound together and soaked in heavy metal solutions to increase the string mass.
Some sorts of lute were still used for some time in Germany, Sweden, Ukraine. So they probably used a tuning which was close to equal temperament, but probably adjusted frets slightly in order to get a better tuning for some keys, or in order to be more in tune with other instruments. Equal temperament is the tuning system in which the octave is divided into 12 equal semitones and enharmonic pairs such as D#/E♭ are the same pitch.
Of note are the catlines used as basses on historical instruments. The words lute and oud possibly derive from Arabic al-ʿoud (العود - literally means "the wood").
A music scholar by the name of Eckhard Neubauer suggested that oud may be an Arabic borrowing from the Persian word rōd or rūd, which meant string.  Among them was Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi' (789–857), a prominent musician who had trained under Ishaq al-Mawsili (d. 850) in Baghdad and was exiled to Andalusia before 833 AD.
There were also a number of transitional tunings between the classical renaissance and baroque tunings. There were also a number of transitional tunings between the classical renaissance and baroque tunings.
In fact I think it is unlikely that lute players ever thought in terms of specific temperaments – they tuned by ear alone, without the help of any electronic tuning devices, and judged the results by ear as well. Only the last survived into the late 17th century. Composer Vladimir Vavilov was a pioneer of the lute revival in the USSR, he was also the author of numerous musical hoaxes. The lute almost fell out of use after 1800.
Any corrections or additions are welcomed and can be sent to the webmaster.  The revival of the lute gave composers an opportunity to create new works for it. Ottorino Respighi's famous orchestral suites called Ancient Airs and Dances are drawn from various books and articles on 16th- and 17th-century lute music transcribed by the musicologist Oscar Chilesotti, including eight pieces from a German manuscript Da un Codice Lauten-Buch, now in a private library in northern Italy. To read it, a musician must know the instrument's tuning, number of strings, etc.
A recent treatment of temperaments by Claudio di Veroli, including a discussion of fretting on lutes and viols, can be found in his eBook.
Particularly important was the Italian composer Albert de Rippe (1500–1551), who worked in France and composed polyphonic fantasias of considerable complexity.
For free lessons, sheet music, and pro videos join the Email Newsletter. The bridge, sometimes made of a fruitwood, is attached to the soundboard typically between a fifth and a seventh of the belly length. 4 0 obj This schedule is intended as a starting point. The early 16th century saw Petrucci's publications of lute music by Francesco Spinacino (fl.
Important pioneers in lute revival were Julian Bream, Hans Neemann, Walter Gerwig, Suzanne Bloch and Diana Poulton. The neck, nut, bridge, end peg and tuning pegs/levers are also made out of Walnut.The sound board is made out of Canadian spruce wood and its one sound hole has an intricate laser cut design.
During the early days of the early music movement, many lutes were constructed by available luthiers, whose specialty was often classical guitars. The earliest known tablatures are for a six-stringed instrument, though evidence of earlier four- and five-stringed lutes exists.  Frederick II made visits to the Lech valley and Bavaria between 1218 and 1237 with a "Moorish Sicilian retinue".  His Hohenstaufen grandson Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250) continued integrating Muslims into his court, including Moorish musicians. Furthermore, it was only around 1500 that lute players began to transition from plectrum to plucking.
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