To learn more about the map elements, please download the “Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees", This distribution map has been developed by the European Commission Joint Research Centre (partly based on the EUFORGEN map) and released under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0), Caudullo, G., Welk, E., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2017. The crown is variable, with a variety of shapes common in wild populations from level branches to near-fastigiate (Pravdin 1964, Steven & Carlisle 1959); open ovoid-conic when young and usually eventually becoming dense, broadly domed or even flat-topped. Var. 200 km in a flat landscape). 2008.