Tentacles are a jellyfish's main form of defense, and can be used to paralyze or shock a predator, allowing the jellyfish to escape. In 2006 the Spanish Red Cross treated 19,000 stung swimmers along the Costa Brava. [103], Most jellyfish are marine animals, although a few hydromedusae inhabit freshwater. Researchers described these as "self-propelling microscopic grenades" and named them cassiosomes. [118] Roger Tsien later chemically manipulated GFP to produce other fluorescent colors to use as markers. [23] 95% or more of the mesogloea consists of water,[28] but it also contains collagen and other fibrous proteins, as well as wandering amoebocytes which can engulf debris and bacteria. [126], The effects of stings range from mild discomfort to extreme pain and death. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- Jellyfish prepared this way retain 7–10% of their original weight, and the processed product consists of approximately 94% water and 6% protein. [30] The rim of the bell is folded inwards to form a shelf known as a velarium which restricts the bell's aperture and creates a powerful jet when the bell pulsates, allowing box jellyfish to swim faster than true jellyfish. [50] Jellyfish are usually either male or female (with occasional hermaphrodites).
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[82][83] Jellyfish are well placed to benefit from disturbance of marine ecosystems. There are often four oral arms connected to the manubrium, streaming away into the water below. [37], Jellyfish range from about one millimeter in bell height and diameter,[38] to nearly 2 metres (7 ft) in bell height and diameter; the tentacles and mouth parts usually extend beyond this bell dimension. They dine on fish, shrimp, crabs and tiny plants. [105] Jellyfish Lake is a marine lake where millions of golden jellyfish (Mastigias spp.) Some hydromedusae reproduce by fission. [13], Given that jellyfish is a common name, its mapping to biological groups is inexact. Large, often colorful, jellyfish are common in coastal zones worldwide. [104] Some jellyfish populations have become restricted to coastal saltwater lakes, such as Jellyfish Lake in Palau. The non-medusozoan clades called jellyfish by some but not all authorities (both agreeing and disagreeing citations are given in each case) are indicated with "???" These deepen as the constriction sites migrate down the body, and separate segments known as ephyra detach. [127][128] Most jellyfish stings are not deadly, but stings of some box jellyfish (Irukandji jellyfish), such as the sea wasp, can be deadly. [23] Budding sites vary by species; from the tentacle bulbs, the manubrium (above the mouth), or the gonads of hydromedusae. The American evolutionary biologist Paulyn Cartwright gives the following general definition: Typically, medusozoan cnidarians have a pelagic, predatory jellyfish stage in their life cycle; staurozoans are the exceptions [as they are stalked].[12]. They are also used in research, where the green fluorescent protein used by some species to cause bioluminescence has been adapted as a fluorescent marker for genes inserted into other cells or organisms.

Tentacles are a jellyfish's main form of defense, and can be used to paralyze or shock a predator, allowing the jellyfish to escape. In 2006 the Spanish Red Cross treated 19,000 stung swimmers along the Costa Brava. [103], Most jellyfish are marine animals, although a few hydromedusae inhabit freshwater. Researchers described these as "self-propelling microscopic grenades" and named them cassiosomes. [118] Roger Tsien later chemically manipulated GFP to produce other fluorescent colors to use as markers. [23] 95% or more of the mesogloea consists of water,[28] but it also contains collagen and other fibrous proteins, as well as wandering amoebocytes which can engulf debris and bacteria. [126], The effects of stings range from mild discomfort to extreme pain and death. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- Jellyfish prepared this way retain 7–10% of their original weight, and the processed product consists of approximately 94% water and 6% protein. [30] The rim of the bell is folded inwards to form a shelf known as a velarium which restricts the bell's aperture and creates a powerful jet when the bell pulsates, allowing box jellyfish to swim faster than true jellyfish. [50] Jellyfish are usually either male or female (with occasional hermaphrodites).

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